This Communication aims to prevent possible misinterpretation and misuse of exemptions to Article 296 EC in the field of defence procurement. To this end, the Commission has set out its views on the principles governing the application of Article 296 EC and explained its understanding of how this Article should be applied.

Internal market rules do not apply to defence acquisitions for trade in arms, munitions and war material; the legal basis for this exemption is Article 296. The scope of this exemption is, however, limited by the concept of "essential security interests" and by the list of military equipment mentioned in Article 296(2).

Any exemption authorised by Article 296 goes to the very heart of the fundamental principles and objectives of the internal market. Such exceptions should therefore be strictly confined to cases where Member States have no other choice than to protect their security interests nationally.

The list of military equipment mentioned in Article 296 was adapted in 1958 by Council Decision 255 / 58. The nature of the products on the 1958 list and the explicit reference in Article 296 to "specifically military purposes" confirm that only the procurement of equipment which is designed, developed and produced for specifically military purposes can be exempted from Community rules (Article 296(1)(b) EC).

Nevertheless, Article 296 can also cover the procurement of dual-use equipment for both military and non-military purposes, but only if the application of Community rules would oblige a Member State to disclose information prejudicial to its essential security interests (Article 296(1)(a)).

Military items included in the 1958 list are not automatically exempted from internal market rules. Any Member State seeking exemption under Article 296 must demonstrate that the exemption in question is necessary for the protection of its essential security interests, this being the only objective which may justify such an exemption. General references to the country's geographical and political situation, history and alliance commitments are not sufficient.

The concept of essential security interests gives Member States flexibility in the choice of measures to protect those interests. It is essential for contracting authorities to assess each procurement contract with great care.

As guardian of the Treaty, the Commission may verify - with due regard to the sensitive nature of the defence sector - whether the conditions for exempting procurement contracts on the basis of Article 296 are fulfilled.

The Commission may also bring the matter directly before the Court of Justice if it considers that a Member State is making improper use of the powers provided for in Article 296.


The majority of defence contracts are exempted from internal market rules and awarded on the basis of widely differing national procurement rules. With a view to the establishment of a European defence equipment market, the 2004 Green Paper on Defence Procurement (link) launches a debate on how to improve transparency and openness of defence markets between EU Member States. In December 2005 the Commission announced two separate initiatives (link to COM(2005) 626 final): the adoption of an "Interpretative Communication on the application of Article 296 EC" (analysed above) and the preparation of a possible new directive on the procurement of defence equipment to which Article 296 exemptions do not apply.

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